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   Table of Contents - Current issue
October-December 2018
Volume 1 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 87-115

Online since Tuesday, April 30, 2019

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Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion: Does it still have a role? p. 87
Jessica Reid, Michael Rooke, Colin Hawksmith, Craig Jurisevic, Michael P Brown, Susan J Neuhaus
BACKGROUND: Hyperthermic-isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with melphalan is an established modality for the treatment of irresectable malignancy of an extremity, including melanoma. ILP isolates the affected limb from the systemic circulation, using an extracorporeal bypass circuit, and administering high-dose intra-arterial chemotherapy. While this technique remains the “gold standard” and is practiced at high-volume surgical oncology centers worldwide, as new systemic treatments have become available, it is timely to review the current place of regional chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six ILPs were performed between 2006 and 2013 at a single center. Patient's parameters, clinical outcomes, and survival were evaluated. Twenty procedures were for melanoma, five for sarcoma, and one for extensive basal cell carcinoma (BCC). RESULTS: ILP was well tolerated with few intraoperative or postoperative complications. Within the melanoma group, limb toxicities were low with one Grade III and no severe (Wieberdink IV+) toxicities. Limb salvage was achieved in 2/5 sarcoma patients. At 6 weeks' postprocedure, 13 melanomas, two sarcomas, and the BCC patient reported a complete response (16/26). However, 5 years after the last procedure, and a median follow-up of 23 months, the majority of melanoma and all sarcoma patients went on to develop local recurrence or metastatic disease. CONCLUSIONS: ILP is a useful technique to provide high-dose chemotherapy to refractory limb malignancy to provide effective palliation, delay progression, or even obtain cure. However, as new effective systemic therapies emerge, the role of isolated regional chemotherapy (ILP and isolated limb infusion) needs to be reevaluated.
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Near-infrared spectroscopy of the thigh fails to discriminate cyclists with arterial endofibrosis from normal asymptomatic athletes p. 93
T Julienne, M Ammi, J Hersant, S Henni, P Abraham
BACKGROUND: This study is to assess the applicability and performance of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the diagnosis of exercise-induced arterial endofibrosis (EIAE). METHODS: NIRS was measured on each thigh, in 12 highly trained asymptomatic cyclists (controls) and 14 EIAE patients highly trained competition cyclists. All patients had an incremental bicycle stress test until exhaustion or symptom limitation. Results are presented as median (25°; 75° centiles) and between groups difference calculated with Mann–Whitney test. RESULTS: Six of the NIRS recordings technically failed: three in controls and three in EIAE patients due to probe disconnection. In the remaining nine controls and 11 EIAE patients, no difference was found at peak exercise for tissue saturation index (−2.0% [−8.5; 2.1] vs. −4.0% [−5.9; 5.5]; P = 0.710) or for half-time recovery (42.0 s [24.9; 105.0] vs. 42.0 s [33.0; 112.7]; P = 0.905) between EIAE and controls, respectively. CONCLUSION: NIRS, when available, does not satisfactorily discriminate patients with EIAE from asymptomatic healthy athletes.
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A retrospective analysis of eosinophilic disorder on poststroke pneumonia p. 98
Xin Huo, Wanchen Shi, Tianqi Zhang, Libin Guo, Ying Liu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the role of eosinophil on the outcome and prognosis in stroke patients with pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 526 patients with ischemic stroke; the patients were divided into two groups according to whether the patients were complicated with pneumonia or not. All patients were supervised by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score in 2 weeks. RESULTS: Stroke patients without pneumonia were observed a higher eosinophil count and lower platelet distribution width (PDW) compared to the patients with pneumonia (P < 0.05). Eosinophil counts continued to decrease in patients with pneumonia along with an increasing NIHSS score in 2 weeks. Logistic regression identified dysphagia, eosinophil count, and PDW as predictors of NIHSS scores in poststroke patients with pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggested that eosinophil counts might have a significant role on outcomes in poststroke patients with pneumonia. The results underscored that the interaction between eosinophils and platelets might be a treatment target to improve the outcomes in stroke patients.
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Pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic venous disease and their role in C0s clinical class p. 103
Andrew Nicolaides, Eliete Bouskela
The aim of this review is to provide a clear understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of chronic venous disease (CVD) at different clinical stages and the possible role of these mechanisms in the development of symptoms in C0s clinical class of the Clinical, Etiologic, Anatomic, and Pathophysiologic classification, which consists of symptomatic patients without any visible or palpable signs of venous disease. The prevalence of C0s class in several epidemiological studies varies between 13% and 23% of the general population. Wall remodeling and valve destruction due to white cell endothelial interaction is the main cause of primary varicose veins, while deep vein thrombosis produces secondary changes leading to the postthrombotic syndrome. The underlying mechanism of the skin changes and ulceration is venous hypertension, which is transmitted to the skin microcirculation. Over the last 10 years, an improved videocapillaroscopic technique, the orthogonal polarization spectral imaging technique demonstrated that quantitative measurements in the skin microcirculation are progressively altered from C1 to C6 patients and that values in CVD patients are significantly different from healthy individuals (P < 0.05): capillary diameter increases and capillary morphology worsens from C2 to C5; diameter of the dermal papilla and diameter of the capillary bulk increase from C3 to C5; and functional capillary density (FCD) decreases from C4 to C5. In addition, significant changes have been shown between C0a and C0s patients despite the presence of normal conventional duplex scans in the latter: a decrease of FCD and an increase in the diameter of the dermal papilla. Functional abnormalities found to be present in C0s patients by recent studies include increased compliance of the venous wall (hypotonic phlebopathy), dilatation of deep veins in the calf producing an abnormally increased venous volume, reduction in emptying of venous reservoir, reduction in the venoarteriolar response on standing, and blood reflux in small venules despite a normal conventional duplex scan. However, most of the studies are small, and their findings need to be confirmed by larger series. It remains to be seen whether functional changes and microcirculatory changes respond to venoactive medications in parallel to the relief of symptoms.
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Severe vertebral artery stenosis treated by directional atherectomy p. 110
Yongquan Gu, Jianming Guo, Lianrui Guo, Shijun Cui, Hanaa-Dakour Aridi, Mahmoud B Malas, Zhu Tong, Yixia Qi, Lixing Qi
We report the outcomes of directional atherectomy using a distal protective device and drug-coated balloon angioplasty in four patients with severe atherosclerotic vertebral artery stenosis. All cases were clinically successful with complete resolution of the symptoms. Immediate and postoperative results showed a good technical success. These results suggest that vertebral artery stenosis treated with directional atherectomy is technically feasible and may be a safe and effective option when performed by experienced endovascular surgeons.
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Commentary on paper “Severe vertebral artery stenosis treated by directional atherectomy” by Yongquan Gu, et al. Vasc Invest Ther 2018;1:110-4 p. 115
Andrew Nicolaides
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